In 2008, the Yuxi Bureau of Agriculture and the UCLA Fielding School of Public Health started a joint tobacco crop substitution project with 458 Farming Families participating. Suitable crops were identified for each area, depending on soil quality, including cruciferous vegetables, mushrooms, grapes, gherkins, cauliflower, broccoli, peas and arrowroot. The farmers organised themselves into cooperatives, through which they received training on important skills such as accounting, conducting market research, storing and selling their products. The cooperatives further assisted farmers by providing low-cost access to seeds and agricultural inputs, whilst local agricultural specialists delivered training and technical support in the fields. In 2010 the farmers who had switched had an annual income 21% to 110% higher per acre in comparison to those who still planted tobacco. Since then, the Yuxi Bureau of Agriculture has received many requests from tobacco farmers to assist them in switching.